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tv   Book TV  CSPAN  December 27, 2009 1:00am-1:45am EST

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yes, my dad did help to raise the flag on iwo jima but he would never talk about it. i remember when i was nine years old and the third grade my dad came home one night and i said dad, my teacher said you are a hero and you are on page 94 of my history book. luck. i have the book open and she would like you to talk to my class. my down looked at the bookie and the photo and he closed the book and then he said i cannot talk to your class because i have forgotten everything. that was his excuse. then he said your teachers said something about he rose. but i squirmed in my seat thinking now he would tell me usage use the lips but then he just as if he wanted to embed the idea in my head for the rest of my life he
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said james, i want you to always remember that the heroes of iwo jima are the guys who did not come back. after writing it to books about world war ii and the pacific i worried about those who did not come back and i wondered why they were out there in the first place. . .
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where did this japanese expansionism start? where did franklin delano roosevelt's problem in the pacific began? when did it began, and what was the united states policy at that point? wet where we saying that we recognized this historical movement, and if so, what was the american, what was america's opinion? and i looked back and found in the summer of 1905, president theodore roosevelt dispatched the largest delegation to age of in u.s. history. a shipload of congressman,
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senators and administration officials steamed from san francisco out to hawaii, japan, philippines, china, korea and back to san francisco. 100 years later to the month, i followed in the wake of this imperial cruise and i was shocked by what i found. i found many surprises that are detailed in almost every page of the book, but the central thing i found that surprised me was this hidden history that in the summer of 1905, on this imperial cruise, president theodore roosevelt blip the long historical views on the events that we would later call world war ii in the pacific, the events that would catapult my father from the snowy hills of northern wisconsin out to a little island 600 miles south of
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tokyo that the japanese called iwo jima. you know, in 1941, when the japanese hit pearl harbor, franklin delano roosevelt condemned it as a sneak attack. hit none history is the fact that this was the second time that the japanese had used a sneak attack to ignite a major war against the western power. the first was against russia at port arthur during the administration of president theodore roosevelt. theodore roosevelt book that the japanese sneak attack against the russians, which the russians and much of the world condemned, and theodore roosevelt wrote secretly to his son, i was there early well pleased with the japanese victory because the japs are playing our game.
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what game? what was roosevelt game here and what was the game that he was saying that japan was playing in cahoots with the america of? i wanted to know. theodore roosevelt was awarded the nobel peace prize for actions that he took in the summer of 1905 during this imperial cruise. he was awarded the peace prize for brokering the peace between japan and russia, but unknown to the russians at this point, theodore roosevelt was acting secretly as an agent of japan at the behest of japan, and he wrote about this the, that he was, that he was so excited about acting secretly on japan's behalf without the russians
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knowing. unknown to the nobel peace prize committee, and the known to congress, in july of 1905 on this imperial cruise, president theodore roosevelt agreed a secret treaty that allowed japan to expand into korea. why was this important? why is this significant? this is key. you know we pay attention to the dynamite at pearl harbor but here was the match in july of 1905. roosevelt said to japan, you can expand to korea. japan is an island nation. for them to expand into asia, the first had to get korea and if they didn't get korea they were bottled up. there expansionism was finished. carillo wanted-- japan wanted korea. they desired korea. theodore roosevelt green lit the
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expansionism. imagine my surprise when i found that in the summer of 1905, president theodore roosevelt helped create the problem that president franklin roosevelt would later have to deal with out there in the pacific. theodore roosevelt was taking these actions not for any malevolence reason, but he thought this was a very beneficial and move. he thought it was a great progressive move and would help millions of asians. why did the think this way? we have to go back to 1905. in 1905 america was an east coast eurocentric country. déjà was the mysterious oriental far away. we weren't translating each other's books and newspapers. we knew very little about each other. roosevelt had never been to asia. he hadn't been-- he had been once to san francisco comminute very little about the pacific
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and asian politics. roosevelt pheaa ayeesha terrain number of theories that he had picked up at harvard and colombia. one of those theories said that china was a declining race. to roosevelt china was like a big old barn that was collapsing and would have nothing to say about the future of asia. he wrote off 400 million chinese based on a theory and thought that other powers more potent powers as he said, would come in and fill the gap. the chief potent power that would fill the gap on the asian mainland were the japanese, because roosevelt's theory told him that japan was a rising rates, a rising civilization. japanese diplomats who had been to harvard, just like roosevelt, approached him and said mr. roosevelt, justice japan is
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a separate country geographically, separate from asia, we are also culturally different. we are a different race. look at those chinese the japanese said to roosevelt. they are stilling wearing pony tails and long rove's. they have not militarized. look at this japanese. we have strong telephone wires, we have roads all over the country. we are the only asian country that his westernized. were wearing bricks brothers suits. wiesen their best to harvard. we are a different. we are assimilating american culture and you can trust us to bring american culture into asia. roosevelt placed his bet on japan. why did he have to do this? he had to do it because roosevelt with his big stick diplomacy, declared publicly that there were two areas that the united states had to use
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what he called the international police power. one was south america but the other area was in north asia. the area of northern china, the russian empire, korea, manchuria. he thought it was key for the future oameric b to have americs big stick out their in northern asia but he was frustrated because congress would not provide him the troops to wield his big stick. knowing that he could not get american troops out there, he looks for a surrogate. he looked at the japanese and he said, the japanese soldiers are the most dashing fighters in the world. he had his cabinet -- demonstrated jiggetts to hold some that the practice three times a week. the broad u.s. army generals into the white house and stage
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matches and gave lectures about how japan is a rising rates and there's someone to be trusted. roosevelt was told by his secretary of state that he would never get a treaty through congress that would allow him to ally with japan in north asia. so, he wrote secretly, you know the senate is not a good body for making treaties. i will make a wise foreign policy on my own. so in the summer of 1905 on this imperial cruise, roosevelt did an end around congress and made the secret treaty that the nobel peace prize never found out about. these papers were not found until after his death. ones that were found they were redacted and they were lost in the midst of history but it was this summer of 1905 on this imperial cruise were theodore
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roosevelt lived the longest historical views on the events that we would vader called world war ii. you know people interviewing me have been saying, really? you can really make a connection between 1905 and 1941? well, didn't ken burns just have a special that told us that if you go into a national park today, it is because of theodore roosevelt back in the 19th century? yes. the problem in world war ii was japanese expansion. the first step was korea. the first step was annointed, approved and encouraged by theodore roosevelt. every divorce has to have a first kiss. the secret treaty and the summer of 1905 was the match that with the dynamite that would later send my father out there to the
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pacific. i was so surprised to in my research as i went from hawaii to japan, the philippines, to china and korea by all the hidden history at was able to find and i wondered why i was not, why i hadn't learned it before. the "new york times" in redoing "the imperial cruise" gave one explanation why we are learning so many shocking facts in this book. they say-- this is the "new york times" said theodore roosevelt biographers are choosing to ignore many of these facts because they subscribe to certain orthodoxies. i don't know exactly what those orthodoxies are. i have to be finding out in the next few weeks as they may become forward to answer the challenges that the "new york times" is issuing, but in almost every port of call i found
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things that were very surprising to me. when i went to the philippines i went there in 2005. this was just a little while after president george w. bush had declared mission accomplished in iraq. i went to the philippines and i realized, that was their first attempt at nation building. we invaded in 19-- 1898. president theodore roosevelt had declared mission accomplished. when i went to the philippines, i was in manila in a meeting and i told filipino officials that i was going to go down into the southern part of the philippines, and they said no. i said, yes i am and they said we can't guarantee your safety. and i said well, theodore roosevelt said mission accomplished 100 years ago. i am going to go give it a try. against my wishes, they forced and armed police guard on me
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because i was an american. at one point in a southern filipino city, we were driving by-- i was in the backseat with my armed guard, and we drove by the city hall. the city hall was built by the u.s. army. general blackjack pershing had ruled the area from that building. across the street from the city hall, right over there, it said pershing park. there was a big marble whatever and it was pershing park. i thought i was safe in front of a city hall built by the american army, and there is pershing park. i got out of my car. my bodyguard did not think so. he left his arm by the sidearm, scanning their roofs and windows. two days after left muslim terrorist hit the town and plunged into darkness and blew up the sidewalk nearby where i
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had been standing. 100 years after mission accomplished, the united states troops are still fighting in the philippines. when i went to hawaii, i had been going in and out of hawaii since 1974 when i went to university of japan, but i never realized the hidden history there. i realize that hawaii was the first example of american regime change. in 1893-- you know why he was not some unsophisticated pacific islands. hawaii was a separate country. at wasik kingdom. the palace in downtown honolulu had electric lights and indoor toilets before the white house did in washington. in 1893, in 1893 the american ambassador to the country of hawaii ordered the united states marines off the navy ship.
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they marched into downtown honolulu. they surrounded the palace and invited the queen to leave. the first example of american regime change. when i went there in 2005 it was than that i realized why in 1905 when the americans on this imperial cruise sale than to honolulu harbor, novated hawiians came to greet them. you can imagine my surprise when i was out there in china. i am walking the streets of china and a stumble upon, i stumble upon the origins of the fortune that supported the life of franklin delano roosevelt. with a name like roosevelt i thought he had inherited roosevelt money but i learned that franklin delano roosevelt's father was a farmer up in the hudson, well off but not wealthy, not wealthy enough to support the lifestyle of franklin delano roosevelt, a town houses in manhattan and
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yachts and whatever. where did this money come from? i learned in china of that it was the delano fortune that supported franklin delano roosevelt who. the dylan of fortune that was made entirely in china. it turns out that grandpa adela no, warren delano was the american opium king of china. it turns out that franklin, the fortune that sustain the life of franklin delano roosevelt was made through illegal drug deals in china. you can't make it up. but this was the hidden history that i was finding out there on this imperial cruise. folks, if you read this book and you are surprised by what you find, i mean, i am with you because i didn't realize there was this much out there that we didn't know that was still left to be discovered, and i was writing the buck. i wondered why and you might
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wonder the same thing as to page through it. this is my third book about matters between america and asia of. i have seamen written about a lot of may him over the last 100 years out there in the pacific and after writing my first book, the "flags of our fathers," i wondered what i could do about all of this, so i established the james bradley peace foundations. for the last ten years we have been sending american high school children to japan and china on. they lived there for one year, go to school. the idea is this. the idea is that if we take these american much said kids and send their mushheads over to asia where they live in the living room of the chinese or japanese mother for one year, they will come back into
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american society and as they mature and as they migrate up the power structure, maybe the next time we are deciding whether we are going to talk it out or fight it out may be one of these kids will make a difference. i know it sounds naïve, but we are giving it a chance. thank you. [applause] thank you. >> i find that very interesting and we have some interesting questions that are really divided up into two categories. one as roosevelt himself but we also have some questions about the flag of our fathers and the movie. we will save those until the end. i do detect in the audience we may have some roosevelt biographers were a little bit disturbed by what you uncovered here. there are three questions here. how did you actually get some of these facts and some of the secret material that allowed you
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to come to your conclusions? >> well, you know, in the "new york times" review, they say there's nothing in the book that is really secret. it is just the other people have avoided these facts and not wanted to bring them home. you know, the offense for example, the secret treaty in tokyo, and i read-- in my research i would read articles about it and it was isolated. it was put out there in tokyo as a moment in time and you could diminish the importance of the secret treaty if you know nothing else about the history of the summer. so, what i did and i believe apparently i am the only one who lets ever done it in the last 100 years, i lined up every single letter in the pointman in and out of theodore roosevelt's life for the summer of 1905 and when that, when you line up his
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correspondence to see who he was meeting with and what he was saying and what he was writing, he was hot to trot for japan to take korea and he was writing about how he didn't like the russians and he loved the japanese and how the japanese were going to further civilizational there in the pacific. so, there was no secret to this other then i worked seven days a week for six years on this project, and dug it all up, and went to every source i possibly could. there are 40 pages of footnotes here, so there is no peace is here. there is no conjecture. you can see it for yourself. >> the next question deals with their reactions and it may be too early to know the reactions of the japanese and the koreans to your book but can you speculate how they are going to feel about what you have
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written? >> you know, they be i am naive, but i am a guy who has always honored theodore roosevelt, still do. but, there is a reason we don't have one historian. there is a reason that there is not just one history. history as complicated. people are complicated, and someone like a theodore roosevelt as multifaceted. i didn't set out to write a biography of theodore roosevelt. this is not a biography of him. it is the story of 1905 in this imperial cruise and what happened. so their reaction-- i would hope people would read the book and be happy that they know a lot of facts that they didn't know before. i also think it is a cautionary tale about how the founding fathers set up a system to have congress look at the president's foreign treaties and not allow him to do it unilaterally. in terms of the reaction of the
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japanese and the koreans, i have no idea yet. the book has been out for only seven days and we will wait to hear, but i think once again, hopefully, they will look at it in think we would be better off in history if we had some democratic process is bringing like to these agreements. >> some of our roosevelt historians in the room would say you seem to imply that roosevelt may stem from some infatuation. one in the audience says that, weren't these the policies of cleveland and mckinley who preceded roosevelt and if it had not been roosevelt, wouldn't the president at that time, in the of the president's done the same thing? >> no. no. mckinley didn't know much about, much beyond ohio. [laughter]
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note, no really. if you read the history, mckinley was kind of rolled into the spanish-american war. he didn't want it and there was young bucks under him who pushed him into it. no, roosevelt was the president to look-out happenings in north asia and was very, very confident based upon his theories that he could see the future. when he wrote that it is his job to look into the future and see the future and make intelligent decisions now based upon what that future holds, and he could see that again, china was collapsing like an old barn and powers were going to rush in. the three powers that for going to control asia for britain, japan and america. he was sure of this. there is some subtleties here. did you just hear that theodore
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roosevelt said the future of asia is not about democracy. the future of asia is not about self-determination. the future of asia is not about liberty. they feature-- asia will be controlled by outside powers and it is important that america be one of those powers. congress would not green like this, so roosevelt used the japanese army as a surrogate. >> one of our audience members ask, why was the secretary of war chosen to lead this diplomatic mission? >> secretary of war william howard taft, big bill taft, 325 pounds, led the delegation. he was-- bill big taft made his reputation as the governor of the philippines, so with this point he was secretary of war,
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former governor of the philippines and guess what? america's first attempt at nation-building out there in the philippines by 1905, seven years old, wasn't working exactly like america had thought it should come and the house of cards that taft had built up there in the philippines was falling down. so, taft had to go out there. he had the idea of bringing along sympathetic congressman and senators to take a look at america's huge sinkhole of investments out there in the philippines and then they would make these other stops, and then roosevelt gave him a few secrets to tell the japanese on the way. so, also, the tafts not only was the leader because of his experience with the philippines, but he was basically theodore roosevelt's assistive present. he was the cabinet member that spent the least amount of time
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in washington dispatched all over the world as teddy roosevelt's representative. >> when you were doing your research, brothers some facts that came up that particularly disturb you? >> yes. what facts? well, about every other page in this book disturb me so again, it is shocking to you. it was shocking to me. i think the big here that disturbs me is that i didn't know any of this. i got a degree in east asian history and now for the first time, i am saying all of this hidden history that is left on the cutting room floor of a time and abet a man who has been written a lot about in these facts are-- had not been brought out. the most disturbing thing to me was that somebody in the last
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100 years or maybe a lot of people in the last 100 years decided that by and you, that we americans should know these facts inconvenient facts. that is what disturbs me and that is what i am happy to get out in this book. >> there has been a lot of discussion in our country about waterboarding. unactually habit photo in the book of waterboarding. can you talk about that? >> i mean, waterboarding to me was, was something that came up in the rack for the first time in my life. i knew that the japanese in world war ii had been prosecuted for it, but it was a distant fact, and then i realized that in the early 1900's americans were very familiar with waterboarding.
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it was on the cover of an illustration on the cover of life magazine. you will see in the book an american general standing over an american army soldier. they are waterboarding if filipino on the ground, and the europeans in this illustration are standing in the back, and the europeans are smirking, those americans won't be able to criticize us anymore. and there are pictures of waterboarding. it was a common occurrence in the philippines. so common that i reprint in the book, an american marching song. there was a waterboarding song put to song that the americans marched to. it was a very common thing for us to do at that time. i had no idea. >> interesting. several questions here deal with what are the lessons to learn from your research on our
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current situation in the two wars that we are engaged in today? >> well, that is another book. so, i would like to reserve that one. i go back to the idea that we have a system set up by the founding fathers. we have a constitution that says that this is how the system should work. it is a very good idea to have congressional oversight. congress is supposed to be the one that debates and declares wars, not the executive. in this case in "the imperial cruise," roosevelt made a secret treaty with a foreign country that he did not want congress to look at, and nobody knew about it until well after his death. we had disastrous consequences. it is from this agreement where roosevelt green led japan to go into carillo.
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that was the spark that lit the fuse on the events we would later call world war ii. and maybe this could have been prevented if the congressman had gotten involved then said, mr. roosevelt the thing the japanese are always going to listen to wes and only expand as far as korea? the bfa center had asked president roosevelt, the think there's a chance that after korea the japanese might want to expand into china and what would that mean to the world mr. roosevelt? but, roosevelt had no one. his secretary of state, john hay, had just died. the new secretary of state does not appointed yet. secretary of war taft was a complete a yes man who went along with this secret treaty and kept it secret, until he died, and there was nobody to pull the reins from theodore
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roosevelt because he drove america's future into the ditch in asia. >> one of our questioners as a lot of information on the league of nations and they talk about back in 1917 to 1919, the united states and the united kingdom refutes in spite of the japanese alliance during world war i to endorse deppan's proposal for racial equality as a covenant of the leak. do you think this may have led to japan's mistrust in the west and the western racial supremacy my that been a fact for pre-world war two japan? >> the answer is yes. japan was very upset about that and walked out of the league of nations as a result, but that is all i am going to say because that is 1917. my book ends in 1905, and i
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don't want to get into it. i am aware of the league of nations situations but i didn't do specific research on this book for it. >> one of the clothes you use in the book in your acknowledgments reads from mark twain. there are many humorous things in the world. among them, the white man's notion that he is less savage than the other savages. could you comment? [laughter] well, mark twain is a pretty good writer. but, you know, i am a boy from northern wisconsin, who viewed the other people of the world as very different from me growing up, and then i went to university in japan. i went across asia and europe. i had traveled in 23 countries by the time i was 21 years old. i have lived over a decade overseas, and that just came to
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realize that there aren't so many differences. everywhere i go, people tend to sleep that night. and they are up during the day. they eat about three meals. mothers their young, so now i kind of tend to see the similarities rather than the differences. >> i like that. [laughter] i would like to switch now to flight of our fathers because there is a big interest here in the audience. the person said there are two versions of "flags of our fathers." one was on this graphic and the other was published later. it is what i call the sanitized version. wide the difference? feed what is the sanitized version? my book? >> it said there are two different versions of your book, flag of our fathers. are you aware of that? >> no, i wrote "flags of our fathers" and then there was a
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"flags of our fathers" childrens addition that was rewritten by another author for children and they kept out a bunch of words that i can't say on c-span here for the youth of the country. so i didn't write that second book but it is a children's version for little kids and they cut dealt some of the gore for the kids. that is fair. >> several questioners want to know where you happy with the film of your book? >> well, you know, people think that it is a film of my book. i am james bradley. my dad raise the flag. when i was growing up there were three hollywood films about the flag raising. clint east would's is the fourth so i don't feel clan least wood mate movie about-- it is not like i am stephen king and came
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up with an original idea and they made a movie. they made a movie about the flag raising and i provided a little information and there will be a fifth movie and a sixth movie and future generations so unless there was something really wrong with the movie, i was prepared to support it and i thought clint eastwood did a very good job. but do you know what? let me tell you what i think about authors criticizing films. if you don't want someone to pay your garage fink, don't sell your house. [laughter] [applause] the author takes the money in cells that to another artist who is going to reinterpreted and then the author keeps the money, and criticizes the movie maker. you know, i wrote the book, he did the movie and we both like each other.
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>> the last question is a little complex here because it deals with post-traumatic stress, which is a big issue with our veterans today. you had your father around you growing up, and he never would talk about his situation after he-- iwo jima. one of the folks in the audience, who wants to know if you have any sense are feeling about the difficulties that the six folks, or the survivors of the flag raising in their lives the duper trade in the book, if they had issues with post-traumatic stress? >> yes. my father cried in his sleep for the first four years of his marriage. my mother told me after my dad died. i asked my mom, what does that mean? i never saw anybody cry in their sleep. she said oh yes, he would be shaking in bed and tears would be coming out of his eyes and he would be groaning for the first
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four years that we were married. for years that we were married. one daishi said, jack, you were crying in your sleep last night and he just turned and walked away. and never discussed, never discussed it. i know he suffered. irs taze, he wrote iwo jima. irs pays gid in the interview to "time" magazine one year before he died. in that interview i read hayes said, i feel like i'm about to crack up, thinking about my buddies. those guys didn't come back. those guys who were better than me. one year later, he died at the age of 33, face down, the dead drunk. my father when he was called by the "associated press" to cummins said, i read hayes is
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truly a casualty of war. >> ladies and gentlemen let's give mr. james bradley a big hand. [applause] >> thank you. thank you. he has agreed to, but folks can i say one more thing? now that the kamisar on or off or whatever, i think some people helped me in the back of the book. two of them are here today. my roommate whom i lived with in tokyo and we are still arguing who is right about whatever, we still can't come to any agreement after all these years but he has been a great help and inspiration for me with the three books. his name is chris cannon and he is right there in the back, that handsome guy back there. stand up chris.
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[applause] and then one of the people who has really helped me learn about a very large and important country, in a country important for america's future is here tonight. she was the first chinese person who i met in china who took me under her wing and four years, we traveled all over china, and she is my chinese mother right here. [applause] thank you very much folks. >> mr. bradley has agreed to sign books so i will sit him right here and when you get your books, we will line you up here. >> james bradley is the author of "flags of our fathers" and flyboys. he is the president of the james bradley peace foundation that since the american high school
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students to study in china and japan. for more information visit james >> ariel glucklich, waters some of the best qualities of religion that you claim are also dangerous? >> the single most important quality of religion is that it makes people happy, but the way it makes people happy and is by social integration, by getting them to belong in a group. if the group demands that you do certain kinds of things in order to become a member you become dependent on those demands. you might do anything, and it's the group has their own kind of group, he might be actually a dangerous person. so the good thing is happiness. the bad thing is depending on that for your sense of fulfillment. that is the problem. >> who is dying for heaven? >> people diver heaven the feel
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like they don't belong, and they improve themselves and ordered to belong. the group that tells them that they are going to heaven is usually a religious group. but the problems they have to begin with is not a religious one. the problem they have is that they don't belong and that is what is happening around the middle east and in asia today, that too many people no longer belong in any recognizable group. that is why do you see all of the violence there and not here. >> how did you come up with your theories? >> i have been doing psychology and religion for over 20 years and i have studied the other cases, people injuring themselves or religion. for example rites of passage for pilgrimmage, where the pilgrims walked on their knees or initiations and so forth. we have all seen moms who were whipping themselves and that sort of thing, so i am an expert
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on fire religious people feel that they need to hurt themselves in order to get what they want, which is spiritual salvation. >> where do you teach? >> georgetown university. >> ariel glucklich, "dying for heaven" holy pleasure and suicide bombers - why the best qualities of religion are also its most dangerous. >> coming up from the 2009 miami book fair international a discussion on the supreme court. joan biskupic, author of american original presents her biography of justice antonin scalia. and barry friedman author of the will of the people argues the supreme court bases its decisions on popular opinion as much as it does on constitutional precedent. >> i thought i would start with the last chapter of the buck to make you understand why i even wrote this. many of you are familiar with the 2nd amendment case that the court decided about a year-and-a-half


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